The immune system acts as the body’s defense apparatus as it’s charged with detecting and responding to antigens. Antigens are proteinaceous substances found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other cells. They’re also found in non-living substances, including chemicals, drugs, toxins, and foreign particles — also known as splinters. The body’s immune system is designed to identify and dispel these substances as soon as they appear.
However, it’s crucial to note that the body has a set of HLA antigens. Present in body cells, the immune system won’t take action against these disease-causing antigens and sees them as perfectly normal.
Conversely, there are certain scenarios whereby the immune system resorts to attacking healthy and harmless cells within the body rather than fighting active antigens.
The Major Immunity Forms
There are three primary immunity forms — innate, adaptive, and passive. Although these variations are closely linked to determining and exterminating antibodies, their concepts are slightly different.
Here’s an overview of these immunity forms:
Innate immunity, otherwise known as nonspecific immunity, refers to the immune system people have right from birth. This immune system variation protects and shields you from all foreign antigens. Simply put, innate immunity prevents any harmful substance from venturing into the body.
Acting as the body’s first line of defense, here are notable innate immunity examples:
- Tear and skill oil enzymes
- Cough reflexes
- Stomach acid
- Mucus — responsible for restricting the movement of bacteria and other disease-causing substances
- The skin
Innate immunity has a proteinaceous format — innate humoral immunity. This variation consists of multiple aspects, including pentraxins, naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), and the body’s complement and contact cascades. This immune response also involves the introduction of certain fever-causing substances — interleukin 1 and interferon.
If these reactive actions don’t occur, the body becomes swarmed with numerous antigens, causing mild to life-threatening illnesses.
Like the basis of rabbit monoclonal antibody service, adaptive immunity ranks as specific. Here, the immune system makes antibodies to dispel pathogens the body has contracted in the past.
Adaptive immunity removes infectious agents from the body by determining what antigens are non-self and what variations are self-antigens. After deciphering antigen classes, adaptive immunity facilitates immunologic memory to eliminate a specific pathogen for subsequent infections accurately.
Adaptive immune responses are critical for immunization against certain diseases. The adaptive immune system has T cells that can multiply due to Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) action and B cells that cluster into plasma cells to create antibodies — as seen in rabbit customs.
Passive immunity occurs due to antibodies from a body that isn’t yours. For example, infants have passive immunity from their mother’s placenta. Note that this immunity form wanes within 6 months to a year (12 months).
Passive immunity can also be artificial — through the injection of antiserum. Antiserums contain antibodies formed from another human or neun antibody rabbit. While passive immune responses provide immediate antigen protection, they’re not reliable in the long run.
Notable examples of passive immunization include:
- Immune serum globulin issued to people recently exposed to hepatitis and;
- Tetanus antitoxin for those who have reduced or no immunity against Clostridium tetani
How an Altered Immune Response Can Trigger Complications in the Human Body
Immune responses should efficiently decipher and remove antigens within the immune system. However, this doesn’t happen all the time as there might be frailties that’ll see several diseases develop as time passes.
Immune responses being over the top, less than normal, or almost non-existent can result in major immune system inadequacies. For example, a higher than usual immune response can see the body fight antigens alongside healthy body tissue.
Other immunodeficiency diseases might crop up when your body’s immune system fails to function properly. These illnesses will make you feel sick regularly. Your infections can also go from mild to severe without prior warning. Thus, treatment can prove challenging. Most times, these illnesses take the form of genetic disorders.
Other diseases can also affect the immune system’s inner workings. For instance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) will distort the immune system as the virus destroys all white blood cells in its path.
If HIV isn’t detected on time, it’ll develop into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The progression of HIV to AIDS indicates a severely damaged immune system. People with AIDS will have several recurring diseases that antibiotics can’t expel, leading to death.
Although our body’s immune system produces antibodies to curb the spread of antigens, some scenarios can alter this natural cause. Thus, undergoing checkups and taking timely evasive action is crucial.